The Immigration and Refugee Board of
Canada (IRB) is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making
decisions on immigration and refugee matters in Canada. It was established in
1989 and operates under the authority of the Immigration and Refugee Protection
Act (IRPA). The IRB is composed of three divisions: the Refugee Protection
Division (RPD), the Immigration Division (ID), and the Immigration Appeal
The IRB’s main function is to
determine who is eligible for protection as a refugee or as a person in need of
protection. It hears evidence from individuals and makes decisions based on
that evidence, taking into account the provisions of the IRPA and relevant
international and domestic law. In addition to assessing refugee claims, the IRB also handles admissibility hearings for individuals who may be inadmissible to Canada, such as those with criminal records or those who pose a security risk. This includes individuals seeking to enter Canada who are deemed inadmissible for security, human or international rights violations, organized crime, or serious health and financial reasons.
The IRB is composed of members who are appointed by the Governor in Council, based on recommendations from the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. Members come from various backgrounds
and have expertise in immigration and refugee law, as well as in related fields
such as social work, international law, and criminology.
The IRB operates in multiple locations across Canada, with offices in Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec City. The IRB also operates satellite
offices in other cities and regions as needed. The IRB strives to make its
processes fair, efficient, and accessible to all individuals who appear before
It is important to note that the IRB’s decisions are final and cannot be appealed, except in limited circumstances such as an error in law or procedure. However, individuals may
seek judicial review of IRB decisions in Federal Court.
In conclusion, the IRB plays a crucial role in ensuring that individuals seeking asylum in Canada receive fair and impartial treatment. Its decisions have a significant impact on the lives of refugees and immigrants, and its processes are designed to uphold the values
of fairness, impartiality, and accessibility.