One of the fundamental presumptions in Canadian criminal law is that a person arrested and charged with an offence will be out of custody prior to trial. This is based on the presumption of innocence. The Criminal Code and legal decisions from the Supreme Court of Canada emphasize that liberty while awaiting trial is a basic principle underlying the judicial interim release process.
Upon arrest an accused may be released by police or brought before the court for a bail hearing. A bail hearing involves a balancing of potentially conflicting interests: the liberty interests of the accused and the Charter right to reasonable bail balanced against societal interests in public safety and confidence in the administration of justice. Where a hearing is held, the court determines whether the accused should be released with or without conditions and with or without sureties, or held in custody prior to trial.
An accused is presumed innocent and the Prosecutor must be aware of the impact of even a brief period of detention in custody upon an accused. Even a brief period of detention in custody affects the mental, social and physical life of the accused and their family. An accused is presumed innocent and must not find it necessary to plead guilty to secure their release.
The decision whether to consent to or oppose bail is one of the most critical decisions in the criminal process. It requires a consideration of competing interests including the interests of public safety, the accused and the victim. This process is complicated by the challenges of accurately predicting future conduct.
The appropriate exercise of prosecutorial discretion is fundamental to the proper functioning of the bail process. The Prosecutor must act with objectivity, independence and fairness in each case to ensure early, timely and principled decision making based on the circumstances of the accused and the offence and an appropriate use of legal principles without outside pressures or considerations. Decisions made by Prosecutors about consenting to or opposing release made in the proper exercise of their discretion will be supported by the Attorney General.
The accused should be released or a bail hearing should be held at the earliest opportunity having regard to the requirements of the Criminal Code. The Prosecutor should consider the least restrictive form of release and should not request a release with a surety (the most onerous form) unless each lesser form of release has been considered and rejected as inappropriate. As noted by the Supreme Court of Canada, the default position is the unconditional release of the accused. Any conditions that are requested should be necessary and required in the interests of the accused and the safety and security of the victim or public and related to the commission of the offence.
Where the Prosecutor believes that the release of the accused would jeopardize the safety or security of the victim or the public and such risk cannot be appropriately mitigated by some form of community based release with conditions, the Prosecutor must seek the accused’s detention.
Additional principles and directions that apply to specific circumstances are particularized in specific Directives. Reference should be made to the following Directives: Firearms, Indigenous Peoples, Intimate Partner Violence, Mentally Ill Accused: Court Practices and Procedures, Offences against Children, Sexual Offences against Adults, Victims, Weapons Prohibitions and Forfeiture, YCJ: Court Practices and Procedures.
The Charter guarantees the accused right not to be denied reasonable bail without just cause. The concept of “reasonable bail” relates to the terms of bail, including any monetary component and other restrictions that are imposed on the accused, and requires the least restrictive form of release available consistent with the public interest.
The concept of “just cause” is limited to three grounds for detention which are defined by the Criminal Code:
- to ensure attendance in court
- for the protection or safety of the public
- to maintain confidence in the administration of justice.
Each of the three grounds is separate and independent from the others. There is no specific order in which the grounds are considered. The court decides which form of release to order and it is the court that determines and imposes conditions that are specific to the circumstances of the accused and the alleged offence and necessary to address the three grounds.
The Prosecutor should ensure that the bail hearing proceeds expeditiously and as effectively as possible. Wherever possible, the hearing should be conducted and completed on the first appearance of the accused in bail court. The Prosecutor should consider whether the hearing can be conducted by a factual summary and submissions without the necessity of calling evidence or by conducting a focused hearing dealing with only issues that are in dispute.
If the Prosecutor seeks an adjournment, it should be for as short a time as necessary. The reasons for the request should be stated in open court.
Factors to consider
The Prosecutor should consider whether there is a reasonable prospect of conviction and whether it is in the public interest to proceed with the prosecution of the charges (see Charge Screening Directive). If the charge screening threshold is not met the charge should be withdrawn and the accused released. The Prosecutor should also consider whether a custodial sentence would be appropriate if the accused is subsequently found guilty. Detention should be rare if a custodial sentence is unlikely.
The Prosecutor must assess the circumstances of the alleged offence and the accused, including information relating to the victim, when determining a position on bail. This assessment must continue when new information is received. Information provided by the accused through counsel, may assist the Prosecutor in making a final determination on bail.
These factors must be considered by the Prosecutor regardless of whether the onus of showing why the accused must be detained, or not, is on the prosecution or the accused.
Circumstances of the accused
- the age of the accused
- the presence or absence of a criminal record, including any convictions for violence, related offences and breach of court orders
- a concern that the accused will interfere with the administration of justice (e.g. coercion of witnesses, destruction of evidence)
- the presence or absence of outstanding charges in any jurisdiction, together with their nature and circumstances
- the need for and the availability of supervision of the accused while on bail
- any ties to the community
- the availability of community supports.
The Prosecutor must consider the unique circumstances of Indigenous Peoples when an accused self-identifies as Métis, Inuit or First Nation. The Prosecutor should also consider the distance and remoteness of many Indigenous communities and the barriers that this creates for access to bail hearings and forms of release. A significant disadvantage is created since the accused is unlikely to have established connections or supports in the community in which the bail hearing is taking place. In these circumstances, seeking the detention of an Indigenous accused should remain an exceptional measure unless the release of the accused would jeopardize the safety and security of the victim or the public. Although the Prosecutor should keep in mind the principles referred to by the Supreme Court in Gladue, a Gladue report should not be requested by the Prosecutor for a bail hearing. Reference should be made to the Indigenous Peoples Directive.
When determining a position on bail, Prosecutors should recognize the circumstances of vulnerable and disadvantaged accused, including racialized populations, the homeless, the poor or those suffering from mental illness or addictions. These accused may not have access to the type of accommodation, resources, networks or supports that commonly exist for other members of the community. Pre-trial detention should never be used as a substitute for mental health or other social measures.
Circumstances and nature of the alleged offence
- whether the offence involved violence or threats of violence
- whether serious bodily harm was reasonably foreseeable
- whether the offence harmed the victim (physical, psychological or financial) and/or community
- whether the incident violated the sexual integrity of a person
- whether the victim has provided input through police or a victim services agency
- whether a weapon was used or threatened to be used
- whether there was an intention to cause or attempt to cause substantial property damage or loss, and if so, whether the damage was reasonably foreseeable
- the interests of the community, including the needs of the victim.
The Prosecutor should consider whether the offence involved a spouse/intimate partner. Spouse/intimate partner offences are often committed in a context where there is a pattern of assaultive and controlling behaviour. Violence may go beyond physical assault and may include emotional, psychological and sexual abuse that is intended to induce fear, humiliation and powerlessness. The same general principles of bail apply to these cases, including the requirement for ongoing assessment of the strength of the Crown’s case. Prosecutors should be sensitive to the needs of the victim and to the dynamics that exist in families where a partner is allegedly abused. The Prosecutor must be conscious of the potential increased risk of harm in these cases and must seek a detention order where she considers it necessary for the safety and security of the victim or the public. Reference should be made to the Intimate Partner Violence Directive.
Where the charge is an offence against the administration of justice, such as a breach of a court order, the Prosecutor should consider the extent of non-compliance, the seriousness of the alleged breach and any apparent reasons for the breach in determining her position on bail. The Prosecutor should also consider the gravity of the administration of justice offence and the underlying facts in proportion to the consequences of proceeding with the criminal charge.
Where an accused is arrested for breaching a condition of a release order and/or committing a new offence, the decision to cancel the previous release order should not be automatic but subject to consideration of the same factors set out above.
Options for release
The Criminal Code permits a police officer to release an accused upon arrest. Where the police officer does not release the accused, the Criminal Code directs a court to release an accused on an undertaking without conditions unless the Prosecutor shows why a more onerous form of release or detention is warranted. There are certain offences for which the Criminal Code directs that the accused show why their detention in custody is not required pending trial.
There are several forms of release set out in the Criminal Code. The “ladder” principle requires that a justice not order a more onerous form of release unless the Prosecutor shows why a less onerous form of release is not appropriate. The “ladder approach” moves from the least restrictive to the most onerous form of release and permits the court to release in one of the following ways, with or without conditions:
- an undertaking, with or without conditions
- a recognizance without sureties with promise of money
- a recognizance with sureties with promise of money
- with Prosecutor’s consent, a recognizance without sureties with deposit of money
- a recognizance with or without sureties, and a deposit of money where the accused does not live within 200 kilometres of place of arrest.
In determining her position on bail, the Prosecutor should apply the ladder approach. The Prosecutor should consider the least restrictive bail that still meets any concerns that have been identified. The Prosecutor shall consider each rung of the “ladder” individually and shall reject it before moving to a more restrictive form of release. This should be done by the Prosecutor whether the onus of showing why the accused must be detained, or not, is on the prosecution or the accused.
Although most accused persons will be released by the police or at a bail hearing, given the importance of the protection of the public, the Prosecutor must seek an order that the accused be detained in custody where she believes that the release of the accused would jeopardize the safety and security of the victim or public, and that such risk cannot be appropriately mitigated by some form of community-based release with conditions.
In some circumstances, concerns about public safety or attendance in court could be addressed by supervision in the community rather than detention of an accused. Such supervision should only be considered where it is necessary and appropriate and where lesser forms of release would be inadequate to meet those concerns.
Supervision may be available through a Bail Verification and Supervision Program or by a surety. Community groups or organizations may also be able to perform a supervisory role.
The Bail Verification and Supervision Program may require the accused to report to the police or the program and assists the accused in abiding by any conditions set by the court. The program may also help in accessing other community services or support the accused person. The program should not be expected to ensure absolute compliance with the release.
A surety is a person who assumes responsibility for the accused’s compliance with their conditions of release by promising to pay a sum of money if the accused breaches any of those conditions. A recognizance with a surety is one of the most onerous forms of release and should not be automatic. The Prosecutor should not request a surety unless all the less onerous forms of release have been considered and rejected as inappropriate. If the Prosecutor has determined that a surety release should be requested, the surety approval process should be efficient, minimally intrusive and consistent with the principles of the Criminal Code. Although the surety approval process is ultimately up to the court, as a best practice the Prosecutor should generally use an affidavit of the surety and use an out of court approval process where available.
A surety or an accused may promise an amount of money (with or without deposit) that may be forfeited if the accused does not comply with the conditions of release, including not attending court.
The Prosecutor should not request a deposit of cash for the release of an accused if their surety has assets that can be promised. A recognizance with a promise of money is functionally equivalent to depositing money and has the same persuasive effect. Requiring a deposit of money should be relied on only in exceptional circumstances where a release on a recognizance with a surety is unavailable.
The amount of money promised must be within the means of the accused and their surety. The Prosecutor should not request an amount to be promised or deposited that is unattainable as that has the same effect as a detention order.
Conditions of release
A court determines whether the accused should be released, with or without conditions and with or without supervision. The accused, the Prosecutor, sureties and a Bail Verification and Supervision Program may propose conditions of release for the court to consider. The court imposes conditions that are necessary and required in the interests of the accused and the safety and security of the victim or public.
The Prosecutor must ensure that any conditions she recommends on a bail release are necessary and appropriate to the circumstances of the accused and the alleged offence. The Prosecutor should only request conditions that are necessary to ensure public safety or to ensure attendance, and with which an accused can realistically comply. The conditions recommended should:
- be rationally connected to one of the three grounds for detention in custody
- relate to the specific circumstances of the accused and the offence
- be realistic (the accused will be able to comply with the conditions)
- be minimally intrusive and proportionate to any risk.
There must always be a connection between bail conditions proposed and the circumstances of the alleged offence and the accused (for example, “no alcohol” or “no drug” condition is not appropriate where it is not connected to the offence). Where a connection exists, consideration must be given to crafting the least restrictive bail conditions that still meet public safety concerns (for example, no drinking outside your residence as opposed to a complete ban on alcohol consumption or possession). It is important to limit the number of conditions that are imposed to those that are necessary and appropriate. Any condition recommended should be specific to the case and none should be automatic.
Conditions of release shall not be imposed to change an accused’s behaviour or to punish an accused person. These conditions often relate to therapeutic or rehabilitative measures and are more appropriate following conviction. Conditions imposing a curfew or a condition “not to associate with unnamed persons having a criminal record” or a condition prohibiting attendance at a place may have the unintended consequence of preventing an accused seeing family, accessing support services or losing access to the area they normally lives. The Prosecutor should not request these conditions as a matter of routine.
The Criminal Code directs that the court shall include in the record of the proceedings a statement that the safety and security of every victim of the offence was considered. The Prosecutor must communicate any concerns about the safety or security of any victims to the court.
The Prosecutor must ensure that efforts are made to notify the victim of any release order, the conditions of release, including non-communication and any order detaining the accused. In all cases where there is reason to have concerns for a victim’s safety, the Prosecutor must ensure efforts are made for bail notification to occur as soon as possible. On request, the victim must be provided with a copy of the court order.
Similar notification should be made to victims when there is a bail variation or bail review.
The terms of a bail order may be varied on the consent of the accused and Prosecutor. In determining her position on a request to vary any condition in a bail order, a Prosecutor should consider whether there has been a change in circumstances that warrants a variation to the condition subject to consideration of the same factors set out above.
The decision of a justice to release or detain an accused may be reviewed in the Superior Court of Justice if there is new evidence showing a significant change in circumstances, there has been an error in law or the decision is clearly inappropriate. The Prosecutor must obtain the prior approval of the Crown Attorney or designate to seek a bail review of a release order.
The Province provides funding to the Recipient for the Sexual Assault Centre (SAC) Program. This community-based program provides crisis support and intervention services to victims/survivors of sexual violence, their families, partners, and friends.
The Sexual Assault Centre Program provides support and services to survivors of sexual violence who are sixteen (16) years and older, as well as to their family members, non-offending partners and friends.
Program / service features
A SAC is a safe place in the community where those who identify as women, non-binary, Two Spirit, genderqueer and intersex who have experienced sexual violence (hereinafter “survivors”) can get free, confidential and immediate support 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
The model used by each Recipient to deliver the Sexual Assault Centre Program services/activities listed in section 4 varies across the province in order to respond to the diverse demographics of each community.
Specific service provided
The Recipient is responsible for the delivery of Sexual Assault Centre Program services/activities to Clients living in the catchment area.
Counselling and peer support
The Recipient will provide face-to-face counselling by staff and peer support by volunteers to provide guidance and support to survivors and assist them in responding to their own situation.
Counselling and support provided by the Recipient may be provided one-on-one or in a group session format.
Outreach and public education
The Recipient will participate in education activities directed at the general public or special sectors. The purpose of public education is to inform the public about the Sexual Assault Centre Program and to provide information about sexual violence, including challenging the myths and misconceptions that exist in society with regard to sexual violence.
Public education activities may include public speaking engagements, provision of training workshops to other professionals, presentations, response to media requests, publications, and participation at events such as Take Back the Night, International Women’s Day, Sexual Assault Awareness Month, etc.
Public education may be accomplished in several ways including:
- The development and dissemination of literature, pamphlets, posters, websites, etc.
- Public accessibility to Sexual Assault Centre Program resource libraries
- Awareness campaigns in conjunction with local school boards, universities and colleges
- Presentations to community groups
Advocacy and accompaniment
- Advocacy: The Recipient will assist survivors with matters pertaining to medical, legal, and social services. Advocacy may include writing correspondence, filling out forms and making calls on behalf of survivors, including advocacy for service/programs
- Accompaniment: Upon request, the Recipient’s staff/volunteers may accompany a survivor to other places where services are provided. These places may include hospitals, police stations, court services, medical and psychiatric clinics, abortion counselling services, HIV/AIDS clinics, immigration and housing programs or other social services
Information and referral services
The Recipient will maintain up-to-date resource materials and information on issues related to sexual violence and on other community support services. The Recipient will also assist survivors by coordinating referrals to other services.
The Recipient will provide practical assistance to survivors based on individual need. Practical assistance may be provided in a variety of ways, including but not limited to, the provision of clothing, transportation, childcare, food, etc.
The Recipient will participate in activities to build cooperative and mutually supportive relationships with other community groups and organizations. Community liaison/development activities may include such things as networking, involvement with local community and provincial coordinating committees, development of local protocols with key services (e.g., V/WAP, VCAO), and identification of gaps in service.
24 hour crisis and support telephone line
The Recipient will be accessible to survivors by telephone and/or TTY, to provide support and/or intervention in response to a caller’s immediate needs. Service is to be available on a full-time basis, 24 hours per day, 365 days a year. In some areas, Crisis Line support may be coordinated through a shared regional call centre.
The Recipient will ensure that staff and volunteers who provide direct services are appropriately trained and supervised and have the requisite skills and expertise to respond to the needs of survivors of sexual violence.
The goals of the Sexual Assault Centre Program are to:
- Enhance survivor safety.
- Increase survivors’ level of empowerment.
The Recipient is responsible for completing all workplan activities identified by the ministry.
Service data on ministry funded expenditures will be reported on at an Interim and Final stage. Please refer to your final agreement for report back due dates and targets.
Quarterly service data will be reported through supplemental reports to the ministry.
Sexual assault is a crime. You are a victim of sexual assault if someone forces you to participate in any type of sexual activity without your consent. This can occur in many forms and does not have to include intercourse.
If you are a victim of sexual assault living in Ontario and would like to speak to a lawyer, you may be eligible for up to four hours of free legal advice by phone or video conversation (for example, Skype or Zoom). This service does not include legal representation in court.
This service is confidential and is available any time after a sexual assault has occurred.
This program is available to all eligible women, men, trans and gender-diverse people. You can access the program if:
- you are at least 16 years of age
- you live in Ontario
- the sexual assault happened in Ontario
How to apply
To apply for up to four hours of independent legal advice:
- complete the voucher request form
- email the completed form to ILAvoucher@ontario.ca
If you are eligible, you will receive an email within three business days with:
- a list of lawyers you can contact
- instructions on how to use your vouchers
If you are not eligible to use this service, you will get an email with an explanation within three business days.
If you cannot open the voucher request form or have questions, call us at 1-855-226-3904.
The Barbra Schlifer Commemorative Clinic
If you are a woman or someone with non-binary gender identity who lives in the Greater Toronto area and would like free legal advice from a women-centred organization, you can also contact the Barbra Schlifer Commemorative Clinic at 416-323-9149.
This is a specialized clinic for women experiencing violence.
The illegal possession and use of firearms is a matter of grave public concern because of the potential for violence and serious physical harm including death. The protection of the public is the paramount consideration at all stages from judicial release to sentencing, in any prosecution involving firearms.
The term “firearm” refers to any barreled weapon from which a shot, bullet or other projectile can be discharged and that is capable of causing serious bodily harm and may include a pellet gun or air gun.
In all cases involving firearms, the Prosecutor must seek a detention order, absent exceptional circumstances, to ensure the safety and security of the public. If exceptional circumstances exist, the Prosecutor must obtain prior approval of the Crown Attorney or designate before recommending or consenting to any form of judicial interim release. This decision should be made at the earliest reasonable opportunity having regard to the requirements of the Criminal Code.
The Prosecutor must advise the Crown Attorney or designate, when an accused charged with an offence involving firearms is granted judicial interim release. In these circumstances, the Crown Attorney or designate should consider whether a bail review is warranted.
Reference should be made to the Judicial Interim Release (Bail) Directive.
There are certain firearms offences that are so serious and inherently dangerous as to warrant proceeding by indictment.
The Prosecutor must elect to proceed by indictment, absent exceptional circumstances, where an accused is charged with one of the following hybrid offences:
- possession of restricted or prohibited firearm with ammunition
- possession of firearm obtained by crime
- making automatic firearm
- carrying a concealed firearm
- possession of a firearm for purpose dangerous to the public
- unauthorized possession of a firearm
- possession of firearm at unauthorized place
- possession of firearm in motor vehicle
- transfer a firearm without proper authority
- unauthorized importing or exporting of firearms
- possession of a firearm contrary to a court order.
If exceptional circumstances exist, the Prosecutor must seek prior approval from her Crown Attorney or designate before electing to proceed summarily.
Regarding all other hybrid firearms offences, the Prosecutor should consider the circumstances of the offender and the circumstances surrounding the offence in determining whether to proceed summarily or by indictment, including the following:
- whether the accused has prior convictions or outstanding charges for weapons or violent offences
- whether the conduct of the accused posed a danger to the public
- whether the accused associates with or is a member of a criminal organization
- whether the accused engaged in other criminal conduct
- whether the offence is of a regulatory nature
- whether the firearms, weapons or ammunition have been seized and will be forfeited
- whether the accused is violating a prohibition order
- whether the sentence if prosecuted summarily would adequately reflect the gravity of the alleged offence.
Resolution discussions and sentence
The resolution of firearms offences should be premised on providing the greatest possible protection of the public.
Absent exceptional circumstances and then only with the prior approval of the Crown Attorney or designate, the Prosecutor must not:
- reduce or withdraw a charge involving a firearm to avoid a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment
- reduce or withdraw a charge of break and enter to steal a firearm, robbery to steal a firearm, possession of restricted or prohibited firearm with ammunition, any firearms trafficking offence, any importing or exporting firearms offence
- reduce or withdraw a charge of possession of firearm contrary to a court order.
Prosecutors should be aware that the Chief Firearms Officer has independent statutory authority and discretion under the Firearms Act and may seek a different regulatory remedy outside that agreed to by the Prosecutor.
Notice of Intention to Seek Increased Penalty
Notice of Intention to Seek Increased Penalty will be provided to an accused, where the Prosecutor seeks a higher range of sentence by reason of the accused’s previous criminal record.
Absent exceptional circumstances, the Prosecutor must file a Notice of Intention to Seek Increased Penalty in all qualifying cases where the accused has a previous conviction for a firearms offence.
In exceptional circumstances where the Prosecutor is satisfied that the accused poses no future threat to public safety, the public interest may be served without filing the Notice of Intention to Seek Increased Penalty. In these circumstances, the Prosecutor must obtain the prior approval of the Crown Attorney or designate not to seek an increased penalty.
The following definitions were adopted, created and/or refined by the ministry in consultation with its community and provincial partners. They are complementary to the risk and protective factors identified in the Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action booklet, and are also consistent with the Risk-driven Tracking Database. They are intended to guide partners involved in the community safety and well-being planning process as they identify local risks to safety and well-being and develop programs and strategies to address those risks. These risk and protective factors are commonly used by communities across the province that have implemented multi-sectoral risk intervention models.
Antisocial/problematic behaviour (non-criminal)
Antisocial/negative behaviour – antisocial/negative behaviour within the home
Resides where there is a lack of consideration for others, resulting in damage to other individuals or the community (i.e., obnoxious/disruptive behaviour)
Antisocial/negative behaviour – person exhibiting antisocial/negative behaviour
Is engaged in behaviour that lacks consideration of others, which leads to damages to other individuals or the community (i.e., obnoxious/disruptive behaviour)
Basic needs – person neglecting others’ basic needs
Is unable to meet their own physical, nutritional or other needs
Basic needs – person unable to meet own basic needs
Cannot independently meet their own physical, nutritional or other needs
Elder abuse – person perpetrator of elder abuse
Has knowingly or unknowingly caused intentional or unintentional harm upon older individuals because of their physical, mental or situational vulnerabilities associated with the aging process
Gambling – chronic gambling by person
Regular and/or excessive gambling; no harm caused
Gambling – chronic gambling causes harm to others
Regular and/or excessive gambling that causes harm to others
Gambling – chronic gambling causing harm to self
Regular and/or excessive gambling; resulting in self-harm
Housing – person transient but has access to appropriate housing
Has access to appropriate housing but is continuously moving around to different housing arrangements (i.e., couch surfing)
Missing – person has history of being reported to police as missing
Has a history of being reported to police as missing and in the past has been entered in the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) as a missing person
Missing – person reported to police as missing
Has been reported to the police and entered in CPIC as a missing person
Missing – runaway with parents’ knowledge of whereabouts
Has run away from home with guardian’s knowledge but guardian is indifferent
Missing – runaway without parents knowledge of whereabouts
Has run away and guardian has no knowledge of whereabouts
Physical violence – person perpetrator of physical violence
Has instigated or caused physical violence to another person (i.e., hitting, pushing)
Sexual violence – person perpetrator of sexual violence
Has been the perpetrator of sexual harassment, humiliation, exploitation, touching or forced sexual acts
Threat to public health and safety – person’s behaviour is a threat to public health and safety
Is currently engaged in behaviour that represents danger to the health and safety of the community (i.e., unsafe property, intentionally spreading disease, putting others at risk)
Criminal involvement – animal cruelty
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of animal cruelty
Criminal involvement – arson
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of arson
Criminal involvement – assault
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of assault
Criminal involvement – break and enter
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of break and enter
Criminal involvement – damage to property
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of damage to property
Criminal involvement – drug trafficking
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of drug trafficking
Criminal involvement – homicide
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of the unlawful death of a person
Criminal involvement – other
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of other crimes
Criminal involvement – possession of weapons
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of possession of weapons
Criminal involvement – robbery
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of robbery (which is theft with violence or threat of violence)
Criminal involvement – sexual assault
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of sexual assault
Criminal involvement – theft
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of theft
Criminal involvement – threat
Has been suspected, charged, arrested or convicted of uttering threats
Missing school – chronic absenteeism
Has unexcused absences from school without parental knowledge, that exceed the commonly acceptable norm for school absenteeism
Missing school – truancy
Has unexcused absences from school without parental knowledge
Unemployment – person chronically unemployed
Persistently without paid work
Unemployment – person temporarily unemployed
Without paid work for the time being
Emotional violence – emotional violence in the home
Resides with a person who exhibits controlling behaviour, name-calling, yelling, belittling, bullying, intentional ignoring, etc.
Emotional violence – person affected by emotional violence
Has been affected by others falling victim to controlling behaviour, name-calling, yelling, belittling, bullying, intentional ignoring, etc.
Emotional violence – person perpetrator of emotional violence
Has emotionally harmed others by controlling their behaviour, name-calling, yelling, belittling, bullying, intentionally ignoring them, etc.
Emotional violence – person victim of emotional violence
Has been emotionally harmed by others who have controlled their behaviour, name-called, yelled, belittled, bullied, intentionally ignored them, etc.
Parenting – parent-child conflict
Ongoing disagreement and argument between guardian and child that affects the functionality of their relationship and communication between the two parties
Parenting – person not providing proper parenting
Is not providing a stable, nurturing home environment that includes positive role models and concern for the total development of the child
Parenting – person not receiving proper parenting
Is not receiving a stable, nurturing home environment that includes positive role models and concern for the total development of the child
Physical violence – physical violence in the home
Lives with threatened or real physical violence in the home (i.e., between others)
Sexual violence – sexual violence in the home
Resides in a home where sexual harassment, humiliation, exploitation, touching, or forced sexual acts occur
Supervision – person not properly supervised
Has not been provided with adequate supervision
Supervision – person not providing proper supervision
Has failed to provide adequate supervision to a dependant person (i.e., child, elder, disabled)
Unemployment – caregivers chronically unemployed
Caregivers are persistently without paid work
Unemployment – caregivers temporarily unemployed
Caregivers are without paid work for the time being
Gangs – gang association
Social circle involves known or supported gang members but is not a gang member
Gangs – gang member
Is known to be a member of a gang
Gangs – threatened by gang
Has received a statement of intention to be injured or have pain inflicted by gang members
Housing – person doesn’t have access to appropriate housing
Is living in inappropriate housing conditions or none at all (i.e., condemned building, street)
Mental health and cognitive functioning
Cognitive Functioning – diagnosed cognitive impairment/limitation
Has a professionally diagnosed cognitive impairment/limitation
Cognitive functioning – suspected cognitive impairment/limitation
Suspected of having a cognitive impairment/limitation (no diagnosis)
Cognitive Functioning – self-reported cognitive impairment/limitation
Has reported to others to have a cognitive impairment/limitation
Mental health – diagnosed mental health problem
Has a professionally diagnosed mental health problem
Mental health – grief
Experiencing deep sorrow, sadness or distress caused by loss
Mental health – mental health problem in the home
Residing in a residence where there are mental health problems
Mental health – not following prescribed treatment
Not following treatment prescribed by a mental health professional; resulting in risk to self and/or others
Mental health – self-reported mental health problem
Has reported to others to have a mental health problem(s)
Mental health – suspected mental health problem
Suspected of having a mental health problem (no diagnosis)
Mental health – witnessed traumatic event
Has witnessed an event that has caused them emotional or physical trauma
Self-harm – person has engaged in self-harm
Has engaged in the deliberate non-suicidal injuring of their own body
Self-harm – person threatens self-harm
Has stated that they intend to cause non-suicidal injury to their own body
Suicide – affected by suicide
Has experienced loss due to suicide
Suicide – person current suicide risk
Currently at risk to take their own life
Suicide – person previous suicide risk
Has in the past, been at risk of taking their own life
Poverty – person living in less than adequate financial situation
Current financial situation makes meeting the day-to-day housing, clothing or nutritional needs, significantly difficult
Social environment – frequents negative locations
Is regularly present at locations known to potentially entice negative behaviour or increase the risks of an individual to be exposed to or directly involved in other social harms
Social environment – negative neighbourhood
Lives in a neighbourhood that has the potential to entice negative behaviour or increase the risks of an individual to be exposed to or directly involved in other social harms
Negative peers – person associating with negative peers
Is associating with people who negatively affect their thoughts, actions or decisions
Negative peers – person serving as a negative peer to others
Is having a negative impact on the thoughts, actions or decision of others
Basic needs – person unwilling to have basic needs met
Person is unwilling to meet or receive support in having their own basic physical, nutritional or other needs met
Physical health – chronic disease
Suffers from a disease that requires continuous treatment over a long period of time
Physical health – general health issue
Has a general health issue which requires attention by a medical health professional
Physical health – not following prescribed treatment
Not following treatment prescribed by a health professional; resulting in risk
Physical health – nutritional deficit
Suffers from insufficient nutrition, causing harm to their health
Physical health – physical disability
Suffers from a physical impairment
Physical health – pregnant
Physical health – terminal illness
Suffers from a disease that cannot be cured and that will soon result in death
Substance abuse issues
Alcohol – alcohol abuse by person
Known to excessively consume alcohol; causing self-harm
Alcohol – alcohol abuse in home
Living at a residence where alcohol has been consumed excessively and often
Alcohol – alcohol use by person
Known to consume alcohol; no major harm caused
Alcohol – harm caused by alcohol abuse in home
Has suffered mental, physical or emotional harm or neglect due to alcohol abuse in the home
Alcohol – history of alcohol abuse in home
Excessive consumption of alcohol in the home has been a problem in the past
Drugs – drug abuse by person
Known to excessively use illegal/prescription drugs; causing self-harm
Drugs – drug abuse in home
Living at a residence where illegal (or misused prescription drugs) have been consumed excessively and often
Drugs – drug use by person
Known to use illegal drugs (or misuse prescription drugs); no major harm caused
Drugs – harm caused by drug abuse in home
Has suffered mental, physical or emotional harm or neglect due to drug abuse in the home
Drugs – history of drug abuse in home
Excessive consumption of drugs in the home has been a problem in the past
Basic needs – person being neglected by others
Basic physical, nutritional or medical needs are not being met
Crime victimization – arson
Has been reported to police to be the victim of arson
Crime victimization – assault
Has been reported to police to be the victim of assault (i.e., hitting, stabbing, kicking, etc.)
Crime victimization – break and enter
Has been reported to police to be the victim of break and enter (someone broke into their premises)
Crime victimization – damage to property
Has been reported to police to be the victim of someone damaging their property
Crime victimization – other
Has been reported to police to be the victim of other crime not mentioned above or below
Crime victimization – robbery
Has been reported to police to be the victim of robbery (someone threatened/used violence against them to get something from them
Crime victimization – sexual assault
Has been reported to police to be the victim of sexual assault (i.e., touching, rape)
Crime victimization – theft
Has been reported to police to be the victim of theft (someone stole from them)
Crime victimization – threat
Has been reported to police to be the victim of someone uttering threats to them
Elder abuse – person victim of elder abuse
Has knowingly or unknowingly suffered from intentional or unintentional harm because of their physical, mental or situational vulnerabilities associated with the aging process
Gambling – person affected by the gambling of others
Is negatively affected by the gambling of others
Gangs – victimized by gang
Has been attacked, injured, assaulted or harmed by a gang in the past
Physical violence – person affected by physical violence
Has been affected by others falling victim to physical violence (i.e., witnessing; having knowledge of)
Physical violence – person victim of physical violence
Has experienced physical violence from another person (i.e., hitting, pushing)
Sexual violence – person affected by sexual violence
Has been affected by others falling victim to sexual harassment, humiliation, exploitation, touching or forced sexual acts (i.e., witnessing; having knowledge of)
Sexual violence – person victim of sexual violence
Has been the victim of sexual harassment, humiliation, exploitation, touching or forced sexual acts
Successful at school (i.e., obtains good grades)
Access to/availability of cultural education
Availability of programming and/or curriculum that includes cultural diversity, including First Nations, Francophone, etc.
Adequate level of education
Has obtained at least their high school diploma
Caring school environment
Attends a school that demonstrates a strong interest in the safety and well-being of its students
Involvement in extracurricular activities
Engaged in sports, school committees, etc., that provide stability and positive school experience
Positive school experiences
Enjoys/enjoyed attending school and generally has/had a positive social experience while at school
School activities involving the family
School and family supports are connected through activities
Adequate parental supervision
Caregivers are actively involved in ensuring safety and well-being
Both parents involved in childcare
Two parents that are both strong, positive figures in their life
Family life is integrated into the life of the community
Family life is integrated into the life of the community, creating strong social bonds
Open communication among family members
Communication among family members allows for open and honest dialogue to discuss problems
Parental level of education
Parents have at least received their high school diplomas
Positive relationship with spouse
Relationship with spouse is positive and their spouse positively affects their thoughts, actions or decisions
Positive support within the family
Positive and supportive caregivers/relatives whom they can rely on
Single parent family with a strong father or mother figure
Although they are from a single parent family, they have one strong, positive father or mother figure
Stability of the family unit
Consistent family environment
Strong family bond
Relationships with parents and/or other family members based on bond which may prevent them from engaging in delinquent behaviour
Strong parenting skills
Strong parental monitoring, discipline, clear standards and/or limits set with child/youth
Financial security and employment
Financially stable and able to provide the necessities of life
Ongoing financial supplement
Receiving a financial supplement which provides a regular non-taxable benefit (for example, housing subsidy, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Old Age Security, Ontario Disability Support Program, etc.)
Positive work environment
Working in an environment that is safe, supportive and free of harassment/discrimination
Steady paid employment
Temporary financial support
Receiving a financial supplement on a short or fixed-term basis in order to overcome a temporary obstacle (for example, Ontario Works, etc.)
Work life balance
Positive use of time; employment schedule includes adequate down-time and time to pursue personal interests
Housing and Neighbourhood
Access to/availability of resources, professional services and social supports
Access to/availability of resources, professional services and social supports
Access to stable housing
Stable housing is available that they may access at any time
Appropriate, sustainable housing
Lives in appropriate, sustainable housing, in which they are reasonably expected to remain
Housing in close proximity to services
Lives in close proximity to resources, professional services and social supports
Positive, cohesive community
Resides in a community that promotes positive thoughts and/or behaviour and has a reasonable level of social cohesion
Relationships established with neighbours
Relationships with neighbours assist in providing a strong network of support
Accessing resources/services related to mental health
Currently accessing resources and/or services (i.e., involved in counselling, seeing a psychologist, addictions counselling, etc.)
Ability and willingness to adjust to different situations while communicating and building relationships
Personal coping strategies
The ability to solve/minimize personal and interpersonal problems related to stress or conflict
Belief in their own ability to complete tasks and reach goals; self-motivated
Positive perceptions of his/her self-worth
Taking prescribed medication
Taking prescribed medication for a mental health disorder in accordance with doctor’s instructions
Accessing consistent resources/services to improve on-going physical health issue
Established and ongoing medical support for a chronic health issue through a consistent service provider
Accessing resources/services to improve a temporary physical health issue
Accessing resources and/or services to treat a short-term illness or injury
Demonstrates commitment to maintaining good physical health
Exercises regularly, eats a balanced diet
Positive physical health
Appears to be in good physical health
Primary care physician
Has a family doctor
Optimism and positive expectations for future
Has a positive expectation for their future which could lead to positive decisions/behaviour
Positive interpersonal skills
The ability to interact positively and work effectively with others
Positive pro-social behaviours
Engages in activities/behaviours that positively impact others prompted by empathy, moral values, sense of personal responsibility (for example, sharing, volunteering, etc.)
Sense of responsibility
Takes responsibility for their own actions
Strong engagement/affiliation in community, spiritual and/or cultural activities
Involved in positive activities with cultural, religious, spiritual and/or social groups that strengthen community ties and social support
Strong problem-solving skills
The ability to address issues and solve day-to-day problems in an effective, calm manner
Social support network
Close friendships with positive peers
Associates with people who positively affect their thoughts, actions or decisions
High level of trust in community support services
Believes community support services are willing/able to help/influence them in a positive way
High level of trust in police
Believes the police are willing/able to help them in a positive way
Positive role models/relationship with adult
Engagement with a positive role model/adult who they receive support from and can look up to
The following is an example of what a plan may look like. It is intended to guide local partners involved in the community safety and well-being planning process as they summarize work undertaken in the development of their plan. While planning partners should include information in their plan related to the headings below (i.e., members of their advisory committee and implementation team(s), overview of community engagement, risks, activities and outcomes, etc.) it is left up to local discretion.
A plan is meant to be a living document, and should be updated as communities move forward in their work. While the plan itself will be important for planning partners to stay organized and inform the community of the way forward, the most valuable outcomes from this process will be improved coordination of services, collaboration, information sharing and partnerships between local government, agencies and organizations and an improved quality of life for community members.
Coordinator: Claudia T.
Social Services, Municipality of Grassland
Co-coordinator: Steffie A.
Department Head, Grassland Catholic School Board
Grassland Community Safety and Well-being Planning Committee Members (advisory committee):
Municipality of Grassland (Social Services)
Municipality of Grassland (Communications)
Grassland Catholic School Board
Grassland Public School Board
Children’s Mental Health Centre
Ontario Disability Support Program
Grassland Police Services Board
Grassland Police Service
Grassland Probation and Parole
Local Aboriginal Agency
University of Grassland, Data Analytics
The Grassland community has a population of 64,900, with approximately 40% made up of those between the ages of 15 and 29. There are 54% males and 46% females in the community. The majority of residents living in Grassland were born in Grassland, with only 20% coming from another community, province or country. As a result, most of the population is English speaking; however, there are some smaller neighbourhoods with a strong presence of French-speaking individuals. Most residents of Grassland are single, with 30% of the population being married or in a common-law relationship; there is also a high presence of single-parent households. Most of the land is residential, with several retail businesses in the downtown core. Households living in Grassland have an average annual income of $65,000.
To support the identification of local risks, partners involved in the development of Grassland’s community safety and well-being plan hosted two community engagement sessions at the community centre. The first session had 25 participants, and the second session had 53 participants. Each of these sessions were open to the public, and included representation from a variety of agencies/organizations from a wide range of sectors, including but not limited to local elementary and secondary schools, university, hospital, community agencies, private businesses, addictions support centres, mental health centres, long-term care homes, retirement homes and child welfare organizations. Members of the public and vulnerable groups also attended, including youth and seniors themselves. A number of open-ended questions were posed at the engagement sessions to encourage and facilitate discussion, such as: What is the Grassland community doing well to ensure the safety and well-being of its residents? What are challenges/issues in the Grassland community and opportunities for improvement?
To receive more specific information regarding risks, planning partners conducted 14 one-on-one meetings with community agencies/organizations (some attended the town-hall meeting and some did not). These meetings were initiated by the municipal coordinator, as she grew up in the community and already had a strong working relationship with many of these agencies/organizations. Questions were asked such as: What are the barriers to success that you see in your organization? What are the risks most often faced by the individuals and families that you serve? Agencies/organizations that were engaged during this phase include:
- Grassland Catholic School Board
- Employment Centre
- Children’s Mental Health Centre
- Grassland Hospital
- Ontario Works
- Grassland Police Service
- Grassland Senior’s Association
- Local Homeless Shelter
- Organization that works with offenders
- Addictions Centre
- Women’s Shelter
- Local First Nations and Métis Organization
- Francophone Organization
- LGBTQ Service Organization
The following risks were selected by the planning committee as priorities to be focused on in their four year plan:
- Low educational attainment rates
- At the town-hall community engagement sessions, members of the public and the local school boards identified a lack of educational attainment in Grassland. Statistics provided by Ontario Works also indicated that Grassland has an above-average number of individuals being financially supported by their services that have not obtained their high-school diploma. The local school boards have noticed a significant increase in the number of individuals dropping out before they reach grade 12 in the past two years. This was supported by statistics received from Statistics Canada, which show Grassland having a significantly high number of people that have not completed high-school compared to other municipalities of a similar size.
- Mental health
- Mental health was identified most frequently (12 out of 14) by the agencies/organizations that were engaged on a one-on-one basis as being a risk faced by many of the individuals and families they serve.
- Domestic violence
- Statistics provided by the Grassland Police Service indicate that they respond to more calls related to domestic violence than any other type of incident. Grassland also has the largest women’s shelter within the region; it is often over-populated with women having to be referred to services outside of the municipality.
Implementation teams and members
- Increasing Educational Attainment Working Group
- Purpose: to increase educational attainment in Grassland by creating awareness about the impacts of dropping out of school and ensuring youth receive the support they need to graduate.
- Membership: this group includes representation from the planning committee as well as organizations that were engaged during community engagement whose mandate aligns with this group’s purpose. Specifically, membership consists of:
- Julie M., Grassland Catholic School Board
- Ray A., Grassland Public School Board
- Shannon C., Ontario Works
- Ram T., Ontario Disability Support Program
- Claudia T., Municipality of Grassland (Social Services)
- Sam S., Employment Centre
- Stephen W., Local Aboriginal Agency
- Allan R., youth living in the community
- Mental health task force
- Purpose: to ensure Grassland community members who are experiencing mental health issues are properly diagnosed and have access to the most appropriate service provider who can assist in addressing their needs.
- Membership: this group has been in place for the past two years and was identified after completing an asset mapping exercise of existing bodies as a body that could be responsible for coordinating/developing strategies related to mental health. Existing members will continue to be on this implementation team and include:
- Mary M., Municipality of Grassland (Social Services)
- Fionne Y., Children’s Mental Health Centre
- James Y., Grassland Hospital
- Susan B., Addictions Centre
- Todd S., Grassland Catholic School Board
- Lynn W., Grassland Public School Board
- Morgan T., Community Elder
- Domestic violence prevention working group
- Purpose: to ensure victims of domestic violence are receiving the proper supports from the most appropriate service provider and are provided with assistance in leaving their abusive relationships.
- Membership: this group includes representation from the planning committee as well as organizations that were engaged during community engagement whose mandate aligns with this group’s purpose. Specifically, membership consists of:
- Emily J., Grassland Police Service
- Aiesha Z., Women’s Shelter
- Stephanie L., Social Services
- Lisah G., Social Services
- Kail L., Grassland Hospital
- Frank C., Victim Services
- Sean D., Local Indigenous Agency
Plans to Address Priority Risk
Priority Risk #1: Low educational attainment
Approximately 20% of the population of Grassland has not obtained their high school diploma. As a result, employment opportunities for these individuals are limited and the average household income is much lower than the provincial average. This has resulted in an increase in property crime in the past several years as these individuals strive to provide for themselves and their families.
Vulnerable group: youth between the ages of 12-17
Risk factors: missing school – chronic absenteeism, truancy, low literacy, low educational attainment, learning difficulties, behavioural problems
Protective factors: positive school experiences, optimism and positive expectations for future, self-esteem, positive support within the family
- broker partnerships between social services, neighbourhood hubs, library and school boards (social development) – this will be done collectively by the Increasing Educational Attainment Working Group
- community engagement sessions involving youth (prevention) – this will be done at the onset by the planning committee
- one-on-one meetings with local university, college and social services (prevention) – this will be done at the onset by the planning committee
- review outcomes of lunch-time and after-school reading programs in schools to consider enhancement and expansion (prevention)
- implement the Violent Threat Risk Assessment Protocol (risk intervention) – this will be a joint effort of the Grassland Catholic and Public School Boards
- community is better informed of issues faced related to community safety and well-being (education specifically)
- impacts of not graduating from high-school communicated to students, community members and service providers
- increased access to education for students in receipt of social assistance
- expansion of lunch-time and after-school reading programs in schools
- a coordinated approach to supporting youth who pose a risk of violence to themselves or others
- better school experiences for troubled youth
- increase graduations rates
- increase community safety and well-being through an increase in employment rates and income levels
Priority Risk #2: Mental health
More than 50% of the Grassland Police Services’ social disorder calls are responding to those with a mental health issue. This has created tension within the community as the police are not properly equipped to handle these types of situations. These individuals are becoming involved in the criminal justice system, rather than receiving the support that they require.
Vulnerable group: individuals between the ages of 15 and 45
Risk factors: poor mental health, learning difficulties, low self-esteem, impulsivity, mistreatment during childhood, neglect
Protective factors: self-esteem, adaptability, housing in close proximity to services, access to/availability of resources, professional services and social supports
- broker partnerships between mental health service providers (social development) – this will be done collectively by the Mental Health Task Force
- community engagement sessions (prevention) – this will be done at the onset by the Planning Committee
- one-on-one meetings with local mental health service providers (prevention) – this will be done at the onset by the planning committee and additional meetings will also be arranged by the Mental Health Task Force
- broker partnerships with private sector building development companies with the aim of increasing housing opportunities in priority neighbourhoods (prevention) – this will be done by the Mental Health Task Force
- implementation of the Youth Outreach Under 18 Response Service to eliminate service gaps for youth on waitlists by providing them with short-term support until other services may be accessed (risk intervention) – this will be led by the Children’s Mental Health Centre
- implementation of an evidence-based collaborative model of police and mental health workers responding to mental health calls together (for example, COAST) (incident response)
- mental health service providers interacting to reduce a duplication of services
- individuals experiencing mental health issues receiving support from the most appropriate service provider
- individuals in the community are aware and more sensitive to those experiencing mental health issues
- individuals experiencing mental health issues are connected to stable housing that is in close proximity to services
- development of relationship with private sector building companies
- the level of mental health service availability meets the needs of the population
- increase community safety and well-being through availability of affordable housing in areas of need due to partnership between the municipality and private sector building company
Priority Risk #3: Domestic violence
There are a significant number of women (as well as some men) in Grassland in violent relationships. While the severity varies between cases, many of these victims continue to return to their spouses after the police have been involved. As a result, there are a significant number of children being taken away from their families and being put into foster care.
Vulnerable group: women and children in the community
Risk factors: physical violence in the home, emotional violence in the home, mistreatment during childhood, parent’s own abuse/neglect as a child, unsupportive/abusive spouses, young mothers
Protective factors: self-esteem, positive relationship with spouse, strong family bond, positive support within the family, stability of the family unit
- engage women’s shelters, local hospital and police to create an anti-relationship-violence campaign (social development) – this will be done collectively by the Domestic Violence Prevention Working Group with support from the municipality
- engagement of victims in community engagement (prevention) – this will be done at the onset by the planning committee and additional meetings will also be arranged by the Domestic Violence Prevention Working Group
- implementation of a healthy relationships program (prevention) – this will be a joint effort of the local Women’s Shelter and Grassland Hospital
- implementation of a Situation Table to ensure individuals at risk of victimization and/or harm are connected to a service provider before an incident occurs (risk intervention) – this will be led by the municipality with participation from all planning committee members and other agencies/organizations who were engaged one-on-one
- increase victim’s awareness of services in the community
- awareness of the impact of domestic violence on children
- enrolment in a healthy relationships program for those who have been arrested for domestic-violence related offences
- connecting individuals with acutely elevate risk to service
- victims of domestic violence are provided with the support they require to leave their situation and/or victims and perpetrators are provided with the support they require to improve their situation
- increase community safety and well-being
Sample community safety and well-being planning governance structure
Multi-sectoral advisory committee
- commitment from local governance
- obtained multi-sectoral buy-in
- communication materials prepared
- community is engaged
- strategies are assessed and evaluated
- community is engaged
- strategies are assessed and evaluated
- conduct local research to support identification of risks
- plan is reviewed
- risks are identified and prioritized
- plan is finalized and released pulbically
- strategies identified/enhanced and implemented
- gaps in service are identified for priority risks
- community assets are mapped
Note: governance my look different in each community.
This diagram includes an example of a governance structure for the community safety and well-being planning process. The roles and responsibilities of the participants represented in this diagram are highlighted in Tool 1: Participants, Roles and Responsibilities. The diagram also highlights different steps to the community safety and well-being planning process that are described throughout this document. As community safety and well-being planning may look different in each community, the different steps can be flexible and adaptable for each community across Ontario.
Thank you for your commitment to community safety and well-being planning. The ministry welcomes your thoughts, comments and input on this booklet. Please send your comments to SafetyPlanning@Ontario.ca.
In addition, the ministry would also like to thank our inter-ministerial, policing and community partners who participated in the development of this booklet, including the pilot communities who tested components of the community safety and well-being planning framework and toolkit. Thank you for your ongoing support and feedback throughout this process.
Stephen Waldie, Director, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division,
Oscar Mosquera, Senior Manager, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Shannon Ciarallo (Christofides), External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Stephanie Leonard (Sutherland), External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Morgan Terry, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Steffie Anastasopoulos, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Nicole Peckham, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Emily Jefferson, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Tiana Biordi, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
Jwan Aziz, External Relations Branch, Public Safety Division
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2021. Reproduced with permission. This is not an official version. This webpage is subject to change without notice. For the most current version as made available by Ontario’s Ministry of the Attorney General, please visit https://www.ontario.ca/page/law-and-safety The Ministry of the Attorney General had no role in the creation of the Tahir Majeed Law Firm website content.
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